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De-icing and freezing point depression
for de-icing in
depressing the freezing point
of water, calcium chloride is used to prevent ice formation and is used to
. This application consumes the greatest amount of calcium chloride. Calcium chloride is relatively harmless to plants and soil. As a de-icing agent, it is much more effective at lower temperatures than sodium chloride. When distributed for this use, it usually takes the form of small, white spheres a few millimeters in diameter, called
. Solutions of calcium chloride can prevent freezing at temperature as low as −52 °C (−62 °F), making it ideal for filling agricultural implement tires as a liquid ballast, aiding traction in cold climates.
It is also used in domestic and industrial chemical air
Calcium chloride was sprayed on this road to prevent weathering, giving it a wet appearance even in dry weather.
The second largest application of calcium chloride exploits
properties and the tackiness of its hydrates. A concentrated solution keeps a liquid layer on the surface of
, which suppresses formation of dust. It keeps the finer dust particles on the road, providing a cushioning layer. If these are allowed to blow away, the large aggregate begins to shift around and the road breaks down. Using calcium chloride reduces the need for
by as much as 50% and the need for fill-in materials as much as 80%.
Calcium chloride is used to increase the
in swimming pools. This process reduces the erosion of the concrete in the pool. By
Le Chatelier's principle
common ion effect
, increasing the concentration of calcium in the water will reduce the dissolution of calcium compounds essential to the structure of concrete.
The average intake of calcium chloride as food additives has been estimated to be 160–345 mg/day.
Calcium chloride is permitted as a food additive in the
for use as a
E509. It is considered as
generally recognized as safe (GRAS)
by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Its use in
organic crop production
is generally prohibited under the US
National Organic Program
, calcium chloride is one way to introduce
calcium for calcium carbonate-shelled animals such as
(kalkwasser mix) or a
can also be used.
, calcium chloride is used in canned vegetables, in firming
and in producing a
substitute from vegetable or fruit juices
. It is commonly used as an
and other beverages, including bottled water. The extremely
of calcium chloride is used to flavor
without increasing the food's
content. Calcium chloride's freezing-point depression properties are used to slow the freezing of the caramel in caramel-filled chocolate bars. Also, it is frequently added to sliced apples to maintain texture.
beer, calcium chloride is sometimes used to correct mineral deficiencies in the brewing water. It affects flavor and chemical reactions during the brewing process, and can also affect yeast function during fermentation.
, calcium chloride is sometimes added to processed (pasteurized/homogenized) milk to restore the natural balance between calcium and protein in
. It is added before the coagulant.
Calcium chloride is used to prevent
on apples by spraying on the tree during the late growing season.
Laboratory and related drying operations
are frequently packed with calcium chloride.
is dried with calcium chloride for use in producing
. Anhydrous calcium chloride has been approved by the FDA as a packaging aid to ensure dryness (CPG 7117.02).
It is injected to treat internal hydrofluoric acid burns. It can be used to treat
. Calcium chloride injection may improve the appearance of an
. It can help to protect the myocardium from dangerously high levels of serum
. Calcium chloride can be used to quickly treat calcium channel blocker toxicity, from the side effects of drugs such as
While intravenous calcium has been used in
its general use is not recommended. Cases of cardiac arrest in which it is still recommended include
high blood potassium
low blood calcium
such as may occur following
calcium channel blocker overdose
. There is the potential that general use could worsen outcomes. If calcium is used calcium chloride is generally the recommended form.
Aqueous calcium chloride is used in genetic
of cells by increasing the cell membrane permeability, inducing
for DNA uptake (allowing DNA fragments to enter the cell more readily).
Calcium chloride is used in concrete mixes to
the initial setting, but chloride ions lead to corrosion of steel
, so it should not be used in
. The anhydrous form of calcium chloride may also be used for this purpose and can provide a measure of the moisture in concrete.
Calcium chloride is included as an additive in plastics and in
, in wastewater treatment as a drainage aid, in
as an additive to control scaffolding (clumping and adhesion of materials that prevent the furnace charge from descending), and in
as a thinner.
The exothermic dissolution of calcium chloride is used in
In the oil industry, calcium chloride is used to increase the density of solids-free brines. It is also used to provide inhibition of swelling clays in the water phase of invert emulsion drilling fluids.
acts as flux material (decreasing melting point) in the Davy process for the industrial production of sodium metal, through the electrolysis of molten NaCl.
is used as a flux and
FFC Cambridge process
production, where it ensures the proper exchange of calcium and oxygen ions between the electrodes.
Calcium chloride is also used in the production of
Calcium chloride is also an ingredient used in ceramic slipware. It suspends clay particles so that they float within the solution making it easier to use in a variety of slipcasting techniques.
Calcium chloride dihydrate (20% by weight) dissolved in
(95% ABV) has been used as a
for male animals. The solution is injected into the testes of the animal. Within 1 month, necrosis of testicular tissue results in sterilization.
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