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Uses of natural graphite
Natural graphite is mostly consumed for refractories, batteries, steelmaking, expanded graphite, brake linings, foundry facings and lubricants.
, which occurs naturally in graphite, has unique physical properties and is among the strongest substances known. However, the process of separating it from graphite will require more technological development.
The use of graphite as a
material began before 1900 with the graphite
used to hold molten metal; this is now a minor part of
. In the mid-1980s, the carbon-
brick became important, and a bit later the alumina-graphite shape. As of 2017 the order of importance is: alumina-graphite shapes, carbon-magnesite brick, monolithics (gunning and ramming mixes), and then crucibles.
Crucibles began using very large flake graphite, and carbon-magnesite brick requiring not quite so large flake graphite; for these and others there is now much more flexibility in size of flake required, and amorphous graphite is no longer restricted to low-end refractories. Alumina-graphite shapes are used as continuous casting ware, such as nozzles and troughs, to convey the molten steel from ladle to mold, and carbon magnesite bricks line steel converters and electric-arc furnaces to withstand extreme temperatures. Graphite blocks are also used in parts of
linings where the high thermal conductivity of the graphite is critical. High-purity monolithics are often used as a continuous furnace lining instead of carbon-magnesite bricks.
The US and European refractories industry had a crisis in 2000–2003, with an indifferent market for steel and a declining refractory consumption per
of steel underlying firm buyouts and many plant closures.
Many of the plant closures resulted from the acquisition of Harbison-Walker Refractories by
and some plants had their equipment auctioned off. Since much of the lost capacity was for carbon-magnesite brick, graphite consumption within the refractories area moved towards alumina-graphite shapes and monolithics, and away from brick. The major source of carbon-magnesite brick is now imports from China. Almost all of the above refractories are used to make steel and account for 75% of refractory consumption; the rest is used by a variety of industries, such as cement.
According to the
, US natural graphite consumption in refractories comprised 12,500 tonnes in 2010.
The use of graphite in batteries has been increasing in the last 30 years. Natural and synthetic graphite are used to construct the anode of all major battery technologies. The
utilizes roughly twice the amount of graphite than lithium carbonate.
The demand for batteries, primarily
and lithium-ion batteries, has caused a growth in graphite demand in the late 1980s and early 1990s. This growth was driven by portable electronics, such as portable CD players and power tools.
, tablet, and smartphone products have increased the demand for batteries. Electric vehicle batteries are anticipated to increase graphite demand. As an example, a lithium-ion battery in a fully electric
contains nearly 40 kg of graphite.
Natural graphite in steelmaking mostly goes into raising the carbon content in molten steel, and can also be used to lubricate the dies used to extrude hot steel. Carbon additives are subject to competitive pricing from alternatives such as synthetic graphite powder, petroleum coke, and other forms of carbon. A carbon raiser is added to increase the carbon content of the steel to the specified level. An estimate based on
US graphite consumption statistics indicates that 10,500 tonnes were used in this fashion in 2005.
Natural amorphous and fine flake graphite are used in brake linings or
for heavier (nonautomotive) vehicles, and became important with the need to substitute for
. This use has been important for quite some time, but nonasbestos organic (NAO) compositions are beginning to reduce graphite's market share. A brake-lining industry shake-out with some plant closures has not been beneficial, nor has an indifferent automotive market. According to the
, US natural graphite consumption in brake linings was 6,510 tonnes in 2005.
Foundry facings and lubricants
A foundry facing mold wash is a water-based paint of amorphous or fine flake graphite. Painting the inside of a mold with it and letting it dry leaves a fine graphite coat that will ease separation of the object cast after the hot metal has cooled. Graphite
are specialty items for use at very high or very low temperatures, as forging die lubricant, an antiseize agent, a gear lubricant for mining machinery, and to lubricate locks. Having low-grit graphite, or even better no-grit graphite (ultra high purity), is highly desirable. It can be used as a dry powder, in water or oil, or as colloidal graphite (a permanent suspension in a liquid). An estimate based on
graphite consumption statistics indicates that 2,200 tonnes was used in this fashion in 2005.
The ability to leave marks on paper and other objects gave graphite its name, given in 1789 by German mineralogist
Abraham Gottlob Werner
. It stems from
From the 16th century, all pencils were made with leads of English natural graphite, but modern pencil lead is most commonly a mix of powdered graphite and clay; it was invented by
in 1795. It is chemically unrelated to the metal
, whose ores had a similar appearance, hence the continuation of the name.
is another older term for natural graphite used for
, typically as a lump of the mineral without a wood casing. The term
is normally restricted to 17th and 18th century works, mostly portraits.
Today, pencils are still a small but significant market for natural graphite. Around 7% of the 1.1 million tonnes produced in 2011 was used to make pencils. Low-quality amorphous graphite is used and sourced mainly from China.
Natural graphite has found uses in
brushes, and various specialized applications. Graphite of various hardness or softness results in different qualities and tones when used as an
Railroads would often mix powdered graphite with waste oil or linseed oil to create a heat-resistant protective coating for the exposed portions of a steam locomotive's boiler, such as the
or lower part of the
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